Albert Einstein was a theoretical physicist with considerable applied mathematical abilities, who is widely regarded as the greatest scientist of the 20th century. He proposed the theory of relativity and also made major contributions to the development of the quantum theory, statistical mechanics and cosmology. He was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect and for his ´Services to Theoretical Physics`.
Albert was born on March 14th 1879 in Ulm, Germany to Pauline and Hermann Einstein. In 1880 the family moved to Munich where his father and his uncle established Einstein & CIE, the company that in 1889 were to introduce the first electric streetlight in Schwabing (a neighbouring town, at that time).
It was only from the age of approximately three that Albert started to speak and in his early youth, the child was rather introverted, However, the persisting rumours that Albert was a bad pupil are wrong ? in fact Albert finished his first grade best of class and continued during all his school and university studies to be among the best. Also, he showed a talent for music and played the violin until old age.
Parallel to his education at school, Albert read incessantly and studied books about mathematics and scientific matters so that by the age of 16 he had already mastered the complete mathematical school curriculum.
Albert demonstrated his resistance against the ?lieutenant character? and ?soul-less and mechanical teaching methods? of his teachers at the Luitpold Gymnasium in Munich, for which reason he finally decided without the knowledge of his parents to leave before completing his high school degree. His intention was to join the Swiss Polytechnic University in 1895 but Albert failed the literal arts portion of the entrance exam and then decided to first complete his high-school exam in Aarau, Switzerland. After having first obtained his degree, he finally enrolled at the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zurich. In 1900 he graduated with a degree in Physics.
All his life, Albert continued to challenge authoritarian structures, the strict rules at school or university, existing thinking schemes and dogmatism in science, nationalism or strict conventions such as `dress codes´.
Albert married Mileva Maric in 1903. He became a Swiss citizen in 1901. From 1902 to 1909 he worked as a patent officer at the patent office in Berne, Switzerland and again parallel to his job he immersed himself in scientific work ? a period which can be described as scientifically his most creative and successful.
Albert Einstein`s most noted contribution to the world is his `Theory of Relativity´. By 1902 he was working on combining time and space, matter and energy.
1905, one hundred years ago was Einstein`s annus mirabilis. Only 26 years old, he obtained his doctorate after submitting his thesis ?On a new determination of molecular dimensions? and published four more scientific papers, the most noted being on the relativity principle. These papers: ?On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies?, and ?Does the Inertia of a Body Depend on its Energy Content? showed in their mathematical formulas that the speed of light is constant and not relative to its source or to the viewer. The basis of this principle was an essay which Albert had written at only 16 years of age.
The two other main papers in this wonder-year were about quantum law and Brownian motion. The research on quantum law won him the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics.
His academic career started in Berne (1908), followed by Zurich one year later, Prague (1911) and returning to Zurich (1912).
By 1914, Einstein had become well-known among scientists in Europe. He accepted an appointment as a member of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin and took up a position as the head of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physic (the Institute came into existence in 1917).
Einstein`s Theory of Relativity was purely based on mathematical analysis of rational reasoning but did not use scientific experiments, which caused a lot of scepticism among his colleagues. However in 1919 an experiment of British scientists during a solar eclipse proved his predictions to be correct with regard to the bending of light, which was a conclusion of the General Relativity Theory. A worldwide media chain reaction started, ignited by an article in the leading medium of its epoch, The London Times, which presented the theory to its readers as ?one of the most meaningful, if not the most meaningful statement of human thought? From that moment Albert Einstein was universally known.
As a Jewish scientist and self declared enemy of the Nazi regime, Einstein became an outspoken critic of the German war efforts and vehement opponent of German anti-Jewish policy. He renounced his German citizenship and never visited German soil again. In 1933, Albert Einstein went to the United States and accepted a position at the Institute of Advanced Study at Princeton.
During his lifetime Einstein was committed to peace and was a supporter of humanitarian causes. In 1944 he made a contribution to the American war effort by auctioning a hand written copy, created that year, of his 1905 paper on Special Relativity. It raised six million dollars and today is housed in the Library of Congress.
One week before his death, he signed a manifesto, initiated by Bertrand Russell urging all nations to give up nuclear weapons. On April 18th 1955 Albert Einstein died.
After his general theory of relativity became universally known. Einstein became the world`s foremost celebrity ? a very unusual achievement for a scientist. His fame later exceeded that of any other scientist in history and in popular culture, the expression `Einstein´ stands for a person of highest intelligence or genius.
His face often showing him with one of his beloved pipes in his mouth is one of the most recognisable the world-over and has cult status.
In his honour, a measurement called `Einstein´ was named in photochemistry and the chemical elements `Einsteinium´ are named after him.
In 1999, Einstein was named `Person of the Century´ by Time magazine.
Albert Einstein was offered the Presidency of the State of Israel, which he declined. However he did collaborate with Dr. Chiam Weizmann in establishing the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, who have given Alfred Dunhill permission to produce this Limited Edition Pipe.
THEORY OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY
The Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies
Einstein´s first theory of relativity, which was published in 1905, broke away from the Newtonian reliance on space and time as immutable frames of reference. This theory was immediately recognised by the scientific community as having profound implications for physics and cosmology.
The first postulate was that the speed of light is the same for all observers regardless of their motion relative to the source of the light. The second was all observers moving at a constant speed should observe the same physical laws.
Putting these to ideas together, Einstein showed that the only way this can happen is if time intervals and/or lengths change according to the speed of the system relative to the observers frame of reference.
Einstein discovery of the relativity of space and time led to a revolutionary insight. Matter and energy are interrelated even equivalent. The equivalence of matter and energy is summed up in the famous equation.
Where m = mass and c = the speed of light
Einstein`s 1905 theory is referred to as the ?special theory? because it is limited to bodies moving in the absence of a gravitational field. It took Einstein eleven more years to formulate a set of general laws that took account of gravity, resulting with Einstein`s second landmark paper on General Relativity.
This pipe has been created to celebrate the centenary of the publication of Albert Einstein´s Theory of Special Relativity in 1905 and to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Einstein´s death an April 18th 1955.
It is fitted with a 10mm Sterling Silver Hallmarked band decoated with the equation "where m = mass and c = the speed of light".
His face often showing him with one of his beloved pipes in his mouth is one of thie most recognisable the world-over and has cult status.